|Journal: JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL 2016 , Volume 12 , Number 3; Page(s) 0 To 0.|
|Paper: CLOSED LOOP SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN WITH FUZZY TACTICAL DECISIONS|
|Author(s): SHERAFATI MAHTAB, BASHIRI MAHDI*|
|* DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, SHAHED UNIVERSITY, TEHRAN, IRAN|
One of the most strategic and the most significant decisions in supply chain management is reconfiguration of the structure and design of the supply chain network. In this paper, a closed loop supply chain network design model is presented to select the best tactical and strategic decision levels simultaneously considering the appropriate transportation mode in activated links. The strategic decisions are made for a long term; thus, it is more satisfactory and more appropriate when the decision variables are considered uncertain and fuzzy, because it is more flexible and near to the real world. This paper is the first research which considers fuzzy decision variables in the supply chain network design model. Moreover, in this study a new fuzzy optimization approach is proposed to solve a supply chain network design problem with fuzzy tactical decision variables. Finally, the proposed approach and model are verified using several numerical examples. The comparison of the results with other existing approaches confirms efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover the results confirms that by considering the vagueness of tactical decisions some properties of the supply chain network will be improved.
|Keyword(s): SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN, CLOSED LOOP, TRANSPORTATION MODE, FUZZY MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING|
Governments are fundamentally different from for-profit business enterprises in several important ways. Their organizational purposes, processes of generating revenues, stakeholders, budgetary obligations, and propensity for longevity differ. These differences require separate accounting and financial reporting standards in order to provide information to meet the needs of stakeholders to assess government accountability and to make political, social, and economic decisions. Although state and local governments (herein after referred to as "governments") in the United States have had separate standards for over 100 years, the question is sometimes asked: Why can't general purpose governments (cities and counties, for example) simply apply the standards established for business enterprises? The following questions and answers briefly address that issue, and the accompanying paper and its appendices provide an expanded discussion
The term business enterprise is used to refer to private-sector entities organized for the purpose of earning profit. Business enterprises in the United States apply accounting pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. Business enterprise does not refer to and should not be confused with business-type activities of governments.
How do key stakeholders of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) judge
the effectiveness of their organization? Are the judgments of stakeholders
similar, and how are board effectiveness and the use of
practitioner-identified correct management procedures related to
judgments of effectiveness? This study focuses on a subset of especially
effective and less effective NPOs from a larger sample and
finds that the especially effective have more effective boards (as
judged by various stakeholder groups), have boards with higher
social prestige, use more practitioner-identified correct management
procedures, and use more change management strategies.
Practical implications discussed include adopting more correct
management procedures and change management strategies.
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